Design in Different Context – Food Tourism

15096i04e79c1ced64ff4f

Brian Lo

 

Food and the practice of eating is obviously an essential aspect or component of human being survival, and for the majority of the general public within the world food has became a fundamental part of daily routine; it is a human necessity (Henderson 2014, Henderson 2015). Therefore, food cultures and practices have obtained extensive attentions in these recent years. There are various functions or activities could be performed and accomplished by food, not just only satisfying the human’s physical and physiological needs. As a result of the social, economical and cultural of food, it is finally gaining the recognition as it deserved (Hall, Sharples, Mitchell, Macionis, & Cambourne 2004, Henderson 2015). Many studies and research have evidenced that there is an intensive bonding between food and tourism. Other than that, food has become one of the most significant subjects in the media. For instance, magazine; Cuisine, Australian Gourmet Traveller, or Food & Travel; radio shows, television shows; Master Chief; or event documentary (Hall, Sharples, Mitchell, Macionis, & Cambourne 2004), assist to create awareness and enhance the relationship or connection within food and tourism. Phillips L. (2006) has described how “food has been mobilized as commodity in global production and trade system, and also governed through global institutions” in his Annual Review; “Food and Globalization”.

Food would also be one of the important elements that assist to shape today’s Singapore identity. Singapore contains its own unique and defining features, in 1819, Stamford Raffles stated that Singapore became a trading post from the British East India Company (Henderson 2014), which was remarkable turning points that determine the food culture of Singapore. The early arrivals with diverse backgrounds such as Chinese, Malaysian, Indian, and multi-diversity, arrived into Singapore with their own cuisine in the 1965 when it became an independent republic. This influence could force the perspective on food to be an invaluable design that represents the food industry of Singapore.

The unique food culture design of Singapore has been converted into an international business. The practice of food in Singapore becomes the tourism resource and the new identity of the nation. Furthermore, food could also be a design that allow and encourage tourists to obtain more understanding about cultures and history (Henderson 2015) and this is the reason why “eating is often a major determinant of tourist satisfaction” (Kivela and Crotts, 2006).  Moreover, food is actually a form of storytelling, it assists to narrate, the cultural history, rituals, or even practices from different perspective, this meant that the tourists could physical experience and understand of another culture by experiencing their cuisines.

By using one of the iconic dishes; chicken rice, in Singapore as an example, this cuisine has already turned into a heritage or even a work of art that encourages individuals to understand Singaporean way of living and their essential part to the nations. Design might not be physical; it could appear in different forms.

 

 

References:

Björk, P. 2016, ‘Local food: a source for destination attraction’, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 117-194.

Hall, C.M., Sharples, L., Mitchell, R., Macionis, N. & Cambourne, B. 2004, Food tourism around the world, Routledge, NY.

Henderson, J.C. 2014, ‘Food and culture: in search of a Singapore cuisine’, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, vol. 116, no. 6, pp. 904-917.

Henderson, J.C. 2015, ‘Food as a tourism resource: a view from Singapore’, Routledge, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 69-74.

Kivela, J. and Crotts, J. 2006, “Tourism and gastronomy: gastronomy’s influence on how tourists experience a destination”, Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, vol. 3 no. 30, pp. 354-377.

Phillips, L. 2006, “Food and Globalisation”, Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 35, pp. 35-57.

 

Advertisements

Unified City-state of Singapore through Contemporary Architectural Design

“Designing is the process which we posit changes to the physical and virtual worlds in which we live through intentional acts.” -John Gero 2011

This definition is drawn from Gero’s book, Encyclopedia of Creativity, which explains the relationship between design, designing, the designer and the end user. It is a generic definition and can be applied to many situations. Design, however, evolves into different meanings depending on its context; architectural design, mechanical, electronic, industrial, textile (Gero 2011), contemporary, modern, retro (Smart 2016) or eco-design (Macdonald E.F. & She, J. 2015) – all of these types of designing methods are perceived differently under different contexts. Take a mosque built in Sydney as an example, it is a piece of architectural design that would be accepted and perceived differently under a local context, or inner context, or even cultural context. All various contexts are present at once yet one design piece has many interpretations.

This blogpost will look into the ways design is shaped by local context – specifically in Singapore, it will also explore contemporary architectural design projects created by Wallflower Architecture + Design, and discuss some knowledge that is being developed around Singapore’s social, cultural, economic and historical context, prior to visiting the country.

Since Singapore is an island city-state that houses a diverse 5.4 million people, its compact land allows for a close-knit, bustling environment that helps build local businesses grow as well as create a unified profile on the city-like country. The design of the famous food halls, hawker centres, are an expression of multicultural unification. It is a place where culinary experience from many cultures can be found and eaten for cheap; local dishes such as Hokkien Mee and Chicken Rice can be bought from $2.50-$5.00 (The Best Singapore 2016). Singaporean etiquette design is not lacking in culture as there is a particular way of doing things when it comes to hawker centres. An example would be to place your pack of tissue paper on an empty seat to claim your spot while you wait in line to order food. It is a local, unspoken rule – you won’t lose your seat, and having that peace of mind will aid in choosing the right dish for yourself (Hansen 2011).

The local design development of another part of Singapore is the neighbourhood of Tiong Bahru, its transformation of being the first housing estate in Singapore in the 1930’s, to becoming a ‘hot new hipster neighbourhood’, yet retaining some of its historic ‘ramshackle charm’ is a prime example of how design is shaped by local context (Polland 2013).

Wallflower Architecture + Design is a well recognised design firm in Singapore that work on both commercial and residential projects. One of its recent developments in 2015 called, Secret Garden House, is an aesthetic example of contemporary design in Bukit Timah, Singapore. It is a residential space that encompasses the aspect of privacy, land awareness, greenery and smart choices in material usage (Wallflower Architecture + Design 2015). Contemporary design means to be ever-changing, fluid, or of-the-moment (Smart 2016), and Singapore is a city-state which values environmental sustainability, design technology and appropriate privacy, hence as of now, this design piece, The Secret Garden is a prime example of contemporary design in Singapore. There are other developments in Singapore that are also great examples of contemporary design in Singapore such as the Water-cooled house (Wallflower Architecture + Design 2015) and Foster and Partner’s South Beach project (Foster and Partners 2016).

(Secret Garden House 2015)

It can be seen that Singapore is a country that is rich in culture, not of just one but many cultures – the combination becoming Singapore’s own unique culture. The social side of Singapore is an obvious bright, bustling, lively city that is known to be a popular tourist centre. It caters not only for its locals but incoming sightseers that want a taste of Asia from a well-developed point of living. It has cafés, cheap restaurants providing a wide range of asian cuisines; its multilingual society adds to the unification of the many cultures and helps tell the story of Singapore’s history. The country’s economic and historical context are no secret to the rest of the world, with its famous label as part of the Four Asian Tigers, its rapid growth was unmatched due to physical and capital accumulation (Barro 1998).


Reference List:

Barro, R.J. 1998, ‘The East Asian Tigers have plenty to roar about’, Economic Viewpoint, in press.

Foster and Partners 2016, South Beach, corporate website, United Kingdom, viewed 25 January 2017, <http://www.fosterandpartners.com/projects/south-beach/>

Gero, J.S. 2011,  in Runco, M.A. and Pritzker, S.R. (ed.), Encyclopedia of Creativity, 2nd edn, Elsevier Inc., Amsterdam.

Hansen, C. 2011, A Beginner’s Guide to the Singapore Hawker Center, Serious Eats, weblog, viewed 24 January 2016, <http://www.seriouseats.com/2011/09/guide-to-singapore-hawker-center-street-food-where-to-eat.html>

Macdonald E.F. & She, J. 2015, ‘Seven cognitive concepts for successful eco-design’, Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 92, pp. 23-36.

Polland, J. 2013, Take A Walk Around Singapore’s Hot New Hipster neighbourhood, Business Insider, weblog, Australia, viewed 24 January 2017, < http://www.businessinsider.com.au/tiong-bahru-neighborhood-in-singapore-2013-3?_ga=1.144377909.1821756477.1485424652&r=US&IR=T#over-the-last-few-years-theres-been-an-explosion-in-hip-western-style-cafes-like-drips-2>

Smart, B. 2016, What is Contemporary Design?, weblog, Homedit, viewed 23 January 2017, < http://www.homedit.com/how-to-define-contemporary/>

The Best Singapore 2016, The 5 Best Hawker Centres in Singapore, weblog, Singapore, viewed 24 January 2017, <http://www.thebestsingapore.com/eat-and-drink/the-best-5-hawker-centres-in-singapore/>

Wallflower Architecture + Design 2015, Secret Garden House, Portfolio, Wallflower 624, Singapore, viewed 24 January 2016, < http://wallflower624.firstcomdemolinks.com/webdemo/secret-garden-house/>

Images:

Secret Garden House 2015, Wallflower Architecture + Design, viewed 26 January 2017,<http://wallflower624.firstcomdemolinks.com/webdemo/secret-garden-house/>

History Facilitating Creativity: The Reinvention of Cockatoo Island

Elizabeth Smith

Through its rich and diverse heritage, Cockatoo Island manages to encapsulate several different histories within the confines of its shores and has developed and its own unique purpose due to having such a multifaceted identity. While the conservation of the island is integral for us as the public to understand the history of the Sydney Harbour, the island has also developed a new, renewed purpose in facilitating contemporary installation art for special events.

The past of Cockatoo Island carries several different intertwined histories, each influencing the architecture of the island in a particular way. Initially, the island was used as a convict settlement, which then evolved into a girl’s reformatory with these earlier buildings using stone quarried from the island itself. The shipyards later added to the evolving landscape of the island, facilitating a demand for architecture that was vast and industrial in order to cope with the nature of the work undertaken. This period lasted from the early 1900s up until the Shipyard’s closure in 1991 (Sydney Harbour Federation Trust 2017), the island developing a variety of industrial architecture throughout time.

11750049574_615441fd54_k
Figure 1: Cockatoo Island’s vast industrial spaces (Marchant 2013)

When the island reopened in 2007 its purpose was much different, allowing the public to experience and educate themselves on the island’s history though experiencing the diversity and atmosphere of the spaces themselves. It also became a space used by the Sydney Biennale, the event utilising the vast interiors of the shipyards and the characteristics of various areas of the island with the aim of “exploring how we perceive reality in our increasingly digitised era” (Biennale of Sydney 2016). These ideas of the relationship between space, physicality and experiencing alternative realities can be seen in the works during the biennale – and example being Chiharu Shiota’s installation “Conscious Sleep”. The work, pictured below, draws on the island’s heritage as a convict prison and girls refuge, the beds intending to “evoke notions of dreams, sleep, and memory, while the knotted threads can be read as bundles of nerves connecting the conscious mind to the world of dreams” (Forrest 2016). The work is a manifestation of both the artists own context combined with the complex heritage of the island, creating a work that forces us to actively engage with the immediate environment in a critical way.

Figure 2: Chiharu Shiota’s Conscious Sleep (ABC 2016).

Site specific installations are said to “shift the world around us, creating unfamiliar terrain in our everyday surroundings while forcing a reconsideration of history in light of the present day” (Frock 2014). With the Biennale being housed by the island since 2007, the site-specific installations held on the island have facilitated a more critical understanding of the heritage of the island. Cockatoo Island can therefore be used as a model for future reinventions – giving us an understanding as to how we can transform dilapidated, yet historically rich spaces into ones that encourage artists to build on that history to create engaging and provocative works.

While the circumstances and history shaping Cockatoo Island are certainly different to those we will encounter in Singapore, the transformation of the space from a derelict industrial shipyard and prison into one that provides an immersive, critical understanding of the island’s history can be a catalyst for future ideas we explore, especially regarding how we can both preserve the heritage of a space while reinventing it for a new audience.


Reference List:

Biennale of Sydney 2017, Cockatoo Island – 20th Biennale of Sydney, viewed 21 January 2017 <https://www.biennaleofsydney.com.au/20bos/venues/cockatoo-island/>

Cockatoo Island, Sydney 2013, photographed by C. Marchant, Flickr, viewed 21 January 2017 <https://www.flickr.com/photos/forayinto35mm/11750049574>

Forrest, N. 2016, Video: Chiharu Shiota’s Surreal Sydney Biennale Installation, Blouin Artinfo, viewed 21 January 2017, <http://au.blouinartinfo.com/news/story/1387249/video-chiharu-shiotas-surreal-sydney-biennale-installation>

Frock, C. 2014 ‘Introduction – Site Specific Installation: Some Historic Context’ in J. Spring (ed.), Unexpected Art: Serendipitous Installations, Site-Specific Works, and Surprising Interventions, Chronicle Books, San Francisco, pp. 8-11

Om J.2016, Sydney Biennale: Past and future collide, ABC News, viewed 21 January 2016 <http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-03-14/biennale/7245068?pfmredir=sm>

Sydney Harbour Federation Trust 2017, Our History – World Heritage List – Cockatoo Island, Australian Government, Sydney, viewed 21 January 2017 <http://www.cockatooisland.gov.au/visit/our-history>